The Heroes of 1821's revolution - Quiz of knowledge
Read carefully the information and identify the faces of the heroes, by sticking the stamps in the appropriate place in the map.
PB was born in 1757 in Velestino of Thessaly, which in antiquity was called Feres. PB published the famous “Charter of Greece”. Thorios was a fiery revolutionary anthem that became a symbol of the struggle for freedom. The RB envisioned the cooperation of the enslaved Balkan peoples for their liberation from the Ottoman yoke and the creation of a favored democratic state, where the Greek language and education would dominate. The Austrians, however, captured RB in December 1797 and handed him over to the Turks, who killed him and threw him into the Danube.
FE was founded in Odessa (Ukraine) and its founders proceeded to register members in the Greek communities abroad and in the Danube Hegemony, encouraged by the revolutionary spirit of Rigas Velestinlis, the struggles of Lambros Katsonis and the Souliotas in Ottoman Empire unruly pashas. They used cryptographic code to communicate with each other and signed under pseudonyms. Their initiation into the organization took the form of a ritual, which was sealed by the oath in front of a priest. In 1818, however, it moved its headquarters to the heart of the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople. At that time, the recruitment of members spread everywhere in today’s Greece. According to the plans of the Armed Forces, the Revolution was to begin simultaneously in Moldavia and the Peloponnese, in order to disintegrate the Ottoman army, which was already at war with Ali Pasha in Ioannina.
Eventually it was decided to start the Revolution from the Danube Hegemony (present-day Moldova and Romania), where there was no Ottoman army, their rulers were Greek Phanariotes and many Greeks lived there. Relying on Russian aid, the Air Force crossed the Prutho River in February 1821 and entered Moldavia. The Revolution began and the Air Force, with the approximately 2,000 men it gathered, turned to Bucharest. On February 24, the Air Force issued a proclamation entitled “Battle for Faith and Homeland” and called on the Greeks of the region to take up arms. The uprising in Moldavia was condemned by the Great Powers and the Ottoman troops were allowed to invade. AY, with a few thousand infantry and a few cavalry, faced the numerous Ottoman army in many battles but in the most decisive battle fought in June 1821 in the village of Dragatsani, ended in defeat for the Greeks. AY was persecuted and transferred to Austria, where he was imprisoned.
To quell the revolutionary activity, Khurshid Pasha sent the pashas Kiose Mehmet and Omer Vryoni from Ioannina. The numerous Ottoman army was waiting in Heraklion and on the bridges of Gorgopotamos and Alamana by the chiefs of Panourgia, Ioannis Diovouniotis and AD. On April 23, 1821, the Turks expelled the defenders of the first two positions, seriously injuring Panourgias and killing his comrade Isaiah, bishop of Salona (Amfissa). Then they turned against the defenders of Alamana. After a fierce battle, the Greek forces retreated. Although AD was warned to leave his post, he continued to fight. However, he was injured and taken prisoner. Omer Vryonis offered to give him his life in exchange for joining his army. AD refused and was horribly killed.
The THK proposed to besiege Tripolitsa, which was the central administrative, commercial and military headquarters of the Turks in the Peloponnese. The Greeks would succeed and weaken the other castles in the area. Thus, led by THK, they moved to Tripolitsa. After the victory in Valtetsi, near Tripolitsa, the Greek fighters were able to besiege it more closely. The Dramalis pasha of Larissa and leader of the campaign in the Peloponnese, gathered 18,000 soldiers and in the spring of 1822 headed south. Then THK together with other fighters put under its control the crossings and passages. But other chiefs, such as Nikitaras, Papaflessas and his brother Nikitas Flessas, arrived to help. On July 26, 1822, a deadly battle took place in Dervenakia, where the Ottoman army was destroyed. Many loot fell into the hands of the Greeks, while THK was proclaimed general.
When the Revolution began, the KK left the merchant navy, where it was a captain, and took part in raids against the Turks. In June 1822, with his artillery, he blew up the flagship of the Turkish fleet in the port of destroyed Chios, in which Admiral Kara Alis and about 2,000 Ottoman sailors and soldiers were killed. In October of the same year, the Communist Party fired on the anti-flagship of the new Turkish admiral in Tenedos, resulting in the closure of the Ottoman fleet at its headquarters in the Dardanelles. In 1824 the KK destroyed two more Turkish warships in Samos and Mytilene, while in 1826 it was wounded in an attack against a Turkish frigate and was in danger of being captured.
After the fall of Messolonghi, the head of the GK was appointed commander-in-chief in Central Greece by the revolutionary government and was sent to confront Kioutachis. GK, a former thief and later a gunsmith in the area, had extensive combat experience. GK defeated the Ottoman forces at Distomo as well as in a seven-day battle against them in mountainous Arachova, in November 1826. By the beginning of 1827 he had managed to drive the Ottoman troops out of most of Central Greece. He then hurried to help the besieged militants in Athens. However, on the eve of the attack a small skirmish turned into a battle. GK, who was ill, rushed his horse to the scene of the collision but was fatally injured and recovered the next day. It was April 23, 1827. The unexpected death of GK, lowered the morale of the warriors and the conflict ended in a great destruction of the Greek army.
The Great Powers decided to mediate jointly for the resolution of the Greek Question. The High Gate, however, encouraged by its military successes, reacted by rejecting mediation. Then English, French and Russian warships sailed to Pylos, to implement the decisions of the Great Powers. In the Battle of N, in October 1827, the naval allied forces confronted the Turkish-Egyptian fleet, destroying it completely. The victory of the Allied fleet in the N accelerated developments, eventually leading to the liberation of Greece.
IK came from an aristocratic family of Corfu. He served as Russia’s foreign minister until 1822, when he resigned and settled in Switzerland. Five years later, in 1827, the Third National Assembly of Troizina elected him Governor of Greece. The centralized governance of the IC and its conflict with many local interests provoked dissatisfaction and reactions. On September 27, 1831, IK was assassinated in Nafplio, resulting in anarchy in the country.
A few words about the questioned stamps
The stamps with the portraits of the heroes of the Revolution were first issued on April 1, 1930 for the 100th anniversary of Polygenesis, ie the proclamation of the first independent Greek State after the Fall, although the initial effort was to circulate on 25th of March.
The stamps were ordered in England to Bradbury Wilkinson & Co Ltd, after an international competition in which 3 English companies participated, 1 Greek (the well-known Aspioti-ELKA), 1 Swiss and 1 American.
The series included two different stamps for the values of 50 cents, 1 drachma and 1.50 drachma.
Unfortunately for the philatelists of the time, the whole series were not circulated in all the post offices, namely those that had the same price but a different performance were not circulated everywhere (eg with a value of 50 cents there were two, one with Bouboulina and one with Alexandros Ypsilantis) resulting in protests to the then Ministry of Finance, which responded immediately to make up for the shortfall.
Because the demand was massive, especially for those of large values (5 drachmas), the Ministry banned the mass purchase of individuals, except in the case of the purchase of entire series. Despite the perfect artistic performance, there were substantial problems, such as the absence of the protagonists of the Revolution of 1821 from Crete and as Pavlos Karolidis remarked in a letter of protest, the historical accuracy of the portraits of Bouboulina and Athanasios Diakos and partly of Ko. However, there was also a very serious mistake in the depiction of the borders of the new state. Thus in the 4 drachma stamp depicting the map with the borders of free Greece, the map did not include Evia and the Northern Sporades (Skiathos, Skopelos etc) with Skyros. The fact that the series consisted of 18 stamps in order to reach the symbolic number of 21, drew criticism and negative comments as despite the high quality and anniversary character, the series was in danger of being characterized by philatelists as speculative and degrading collectibles. of its value. Only its high aesthetic value saved it from collectible degradation. Finally, in order to cover the absence of Crete from the series for 1821 but also not to reduce the collector’s value of the series, a stamp was issued in November 1930 with the theme of the holocaust of the Arkadi monastery in Rethymno, but it concerned the Revolution of 1866. The rush was so great that it circulated in the post offices before the relevant decree was issued!
This series was the first to be withdrawn from circulation on the specified date, as the withdrawn stamps were now destroyed, so that what was left had a high collectible value. The series received the honorary place in the 1st Philatelic Exhibition in Athens that was organized in the same year (1930) and was visited by many officials. The postage stamp of the Navarino Battle belongs to a series of 1927, which was originally issued due to an anniversary in Pylos on October 20, 1927 and the entire series (including this stamp) on March 16, 1928. The representation comes from a lithograph of the National Historical Museum (Old Parliament), which depicts the explosion of the Egyptian flagship. The stamp with the “Oath of Friend” comes from a painting by D. Tsokos (1849) and again from the National Historical Museum (Old Parliament). It is a 1965 edition and is a redesign of the painting by the great Greek engraver Tassos (Tassos Alevizos). However, the criticism of the great Greek engraver was harsh, as the figures are vague and do not highlight either the well-known representation or the great talent of the engraver. The only excuse is that perhaps the painting was by nature unsuitable for rendering in such a small size. The production was made by the well-known company Aspioti-ELKA, which in the same year (1965) had been certified, in order to take part in international stamp printing competitions and the UN. The small series (just two stamps and an envelope) was issued on the occasion of the anniversary of the founding of the Friendly Society in Odessa in 1814 by three invisible everyday people (Nikolaos Skoufa, Emmanuel Xanthos and Athanasios Tsakalov) with the aim of freeing him.